Textbook photos of instrumental delivery (Forceps) with use of Episiotomy,
which usually accompanies instrumental delivery to increase maneuvering room
 for the obstetricians and decrease the resistance of the mother's pelvic floor muscles

(1) Forceps before placement and after applying traction in an attempt to pull the baby's head down in the birth canal. (2) The operator starts traction, holding the handles by the distal shoulders of the forceps.





   (3) When the head distends the vulva, an episiotomy is performed  (4) As the head is delivered, the forceps are dismantled

Return to Index Page